Gum disease may range from slight change in color/size/shape of your gum (when it is confined to gingiva) to more severe form where tooth is wobbly (involving deeper tissue supporting tooth).
Hence treatment of gum disease varies from simple non-surgical procedure like scaling, polishing and root planing to more extensive surgical procedures depending on the severity of the condition.
Non-surgical procedures like scaling and root planning are aimed at removing plaque and calculus from the crown and root surface to reduce the bacterial load and create clean surface for the gums to reattach to teeth and return to healthy condition.
In most patients, scaling and root planing is all that is needed to treat gum diseases. Surgery is needed when the tissue around the teeth is unhealthy and cannot be repaired with nonsurgical options.
Surgical procedure include
- Flap surgery / pocket reduction surgery: to reach beneath the gum tissue to clean, to reshape the bone, reducing the space for bacterial colonization below gum line and re-establishing healthy gum line.
- Bone grafts: to replace bone destroyed by gum disease, to restore stability of teeth and to provide platform for implant.
- Soft tissue grafts: to reestablish healthy gum shape, size and contour around teeth/implant.
- Guided tissue regeneration: this procedure stimulates bone and gum tissue growth and helpful in regrowth of tissue to better support the teeth.
- Bone surgery: to reshape the bone around teeth to reduce bacterial collection.
Antibiotics are also used either in combination with surgical procedure or alone to reduce the bacteria associated with gum disease.